In 1873 spirit of the laws Montesquieu spoke of freedom as the ultimate goal of human existence. From there, Bolívar had begun to convince himself of his actions against Spain. Those words, which came together to constitute one of the most important works of the French philosopher, hovered in Bolivar’s head when he wondered about the future of the American nations. It is said that it was one of his favorite books, because of the approaches that were there, that in one way or another motivated him to move on. And although freedom and politics are achieved in practice, beyond theory, as Bolivar well knew, the Frenchman’s words became one more breath for his struggle.
Although the word 1873 freedom was the same, the American context was far from the European. Thus, he wondered: “Will we be able to keep in a true balance the difficult burden of a republic? Can it be conceived that a newly unchained people will launch themselves into the sphere of freedom without, like Icarus, their wings being undone and falling into the abyss? In this way, Bolívar could form, as historian John Lynch proposed, his own theory of national liberation, not imitating the ideas of enlightenment, but seeing them as a contribution to form his own.
Montesquieu had not been the only reading in the life of the young Venezuelan, because the magic of the books had come to his life when he was only eleven. It was in May 1791, two after Bolívar became an orphan, that he ran into 1873 Simon Rodríguez, an intellectually restless man, and who became his tutor. They were joined by the passion for Rodriguez’s instruction and the curious character of Bolívar. It was a teaching that broke with the classic model of the time, because it was done through experience, courageous statements and truth counting.
Rodríguez reflected in extensive stories the vicissitudes that the Creoles had to go through. Bolivar listened, watched, and endorsed this quality that would accompany him throughout his life. His tutor declared himself a lover of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who in addition to inspiring him in his vocation as an educator, had driven him to bring to the ears of the young Caracas, for the first time, that disparity between society and nature that the philosopher proposed in Your social contract. Years later the Liberator would write to him: “I have never been able to erase a comma from the great sentences that you have given me, always present to my intellectual eyes, I have followed them as infallible guides.”
Real 1873 Spirit Bolivar’s way of thinking, which had developed in an early way, was not the result of the teachings of his teacher, or of the authors that constituted his list of preferences, but to this they were adding the multiple experiences that had lived, and that he had almost always sought to accompany with the most diverse readings. Just as he had spoken with his childhood teacher about the deepest of human existence, Bolivar also talked with his readings, with authors from other countries, from other contexts, in which he saw many of his convictions reflected.
On his first trip to Europe, when he just arrived in Madrid, Bolívar had perceived an aged Spain, both in its rulers and in that “classical” literature to which he still revered. Therefore, when on his second trip he was expelled from Spanish territory by an order from the king who wanted to get all foreigners out of the kingdom, he was able to open his literary horizon with his arrival in Paris. Then, and as Max Grillo wrote, “as he read the works of the Encyclopedists (…), his Creole pride expelled from Spain was recreated by savoring the pages of Voltaire, where the satirical mocks prejudices and the arrears of ideas, and of life on the other side of the Pyrenees ”.